The name comes from the Greek. Crataégus, which reflects the property or wood - strong and firm, or the ability of plants to live long: the age of hawthorn can reach 300 years.
Names in other languages
Eng. hawthorn (shrub or tree), haw (the fruit); Italian. biancospino; App. espino, espino albar (blanco), oxiacanta; it. Hagedorn, Wei?dorn; Pol. gl?g, gl??yna, jaworek; Ukr. глід; fr. aub?pine.
Distribution and Ecology
Hawthorn distributed mainly in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere to be between 30 ° and 60 °. sh. mainly in North America and Eurasia.
In nature, hawthorns are usually found singly or in groups in the bushes, on forest edges, clearings and meadows, on scree, more rarely, they grow in thin forests and does not occur under a dense canopy.
Distributed from sea level to the upper limit of forest vegetation in the mountains, in a variety of topographic conditions and on different substrates.
By the soil was not demanding, but better developed on deep, sredneuvlazhnennyh, well-drained fertile heavy soils respond positively to the presence of lime in the soil. In the culture of unpretentious, the vast majority of winter-hardy, light-requiring. Requires no special care, except for periodic trimming and cutting of dry branches, with transplants that hawthorn at a young age is easy to carry, need a strong pruning, grafting can hawthorns and summer, leafy condition.
Hawthorn propagated by sowing seeds, root suckers, and cultivars - grafting.
When the seed multiplication requires extensive - up to 7-8 months - stratification. When sown in autumn in the garden seeds germinate in the spring and not all for some time. In the first year is usually 20-30% of seeds germinate. Some seeds sprout the following year. Percentage germination increased when the seeds before sowing or stratification expose scarification.
Cherenok extremely bad; clone them by root suckers or layers; garden forms are propagated by grafting, and as the stock usually use odnopestichny Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) and Crataegus laevigata (Crataegus laevigata).
At germination the cotyledons handed down over the land, and they are ovoid or elliptical, somewhat fleshy, glabrous, korotkochereshkovye long, 4-13 mm. Cotyledonous of shoot length of 1-6 cm, glabrous, usually reddish. The first leaves are alternate, intimacy, much less than normal and less deeply and intensely rugged plate.
During the first year or first two years of the seedlings are growing slowly, the annual increase does not exceed 20 cm, then the growth increases and reaches 30-40 (60) cm per year, which lasts up to 6 to 8 years of age, then the growth slows down again .
Flowering and fruiting occurs between the ages of 10-15 years. Duration of life - 200-300 (400) years.